The earliest state constitutions quizlet
There is a lot of talk about the US Constitution these days, mostly thanks to our divided political climate.
Though there are certainly people out there who believe that constitutions should be modernized, there are plenty out there that are hundreds of years old. They are still being used today and legally binding.
The question you might be wondering is this: Which constitution is the oldest? The answer might surprise you! But first, here are a few other very old constitutions:. The Constitution of Australia is made of several documents. Originally, the Constitution of Australia gave the United Kingdom power to change the laws.
The country is a constitutional monarchyand has the ninth oldest constitution in the world. The Tongan constitution, like the US constitution, was written to create a balance between the legislative, executive, and judiciary parts of the government.
Each year, the constitution is celebrated throughout the land on Constitution Day.
Constitutional Law and History Research Guide
Tonga has a king, and he wields power through a Cabinet, and to keep that in check, there is alsd of State. The Constitution of Luxembourg is the set of laws that people of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg follow. This is a modern constitution, but it dates back to and has been amended several times over the years. This constitution brought in radical changes in the country, and technically, you can call this constitution an amendment of the original constitution of the country.
The original constitution was created in There are articles in this constitution, and it is divided into 13 different chapters. From tothe UK could technically make changes to the Canadian constitution at will, but after the passage of the Constitution Act,changes to the constitution only occur in Canada.
This is thanks to Quebec, where private law is governed by civil law, not common law, which is applied in all other provinces. This means that every law passed in Canada must take both into account, and must print laws in both English and French.
The Constitution of Argentina is the main legal document of which all laws are based in the country.
State constitution (United States)
This constitution has been reformed six times. There are four parts to the Argentinian constitution and the rights of the people are divided into four different categories: Civil, Patrimonial, Politic, and Social. Like similar governments, Argentina has three branches of government: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.Sonarr not seeing files
There is also a Public Ministry that is an independent body. The Constitution of Denmark forms part of the laws of the Kingdom of Denmark, but not all, as the country is also ruled by Royal Law.Feasibility study in hospital planning
Not only does the constitution affect the Kingdom of Denmark, but also the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The original constitution had sections, which has been amended down to 89 sections. The Constitution of Belgium is the main law of Belgium, and it was put into effect by the National Congress in February of At that time, Belgium declared independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands and established itself as a constitutional monarchy under King Leopold I.
The constitution of Belgium remained largely unchanged until At that point, the original one from was revised and changed significantly. It also changed the government into a federal state with a constitutional monarchy. The last time the Belgian constitution was amended was in Georgia's agricultural industry plays a significant role in the state's economy, contributing billions of dollars annually.
Jimmy Carter, the only Georgian elected president of the United States, held the office for one term, His previous public service included a stint in the U. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Georgia was the world's leading producer of naval stores, which are material. Skip to main content. Georgia Constitution Original entry by. LaVerne W. HillPiedmont College. Explore This Article Contents.
The Constitution of State constitutions are best understood with reference to their historical roots. A review of the history of Georgia's ten constitutions provides a synopsis of the political, economic, and social history of the state. Georgia's constitutional history also illustrates the various methods by which a constitution may be written or revised.
Georgia has used three different methods of constitutional revision: seven were revised by constitutional conventionstwo by constitutional commissions, and one by the office of legislative counsel of the Georgia General Assembly.
Georgia's first attempt at constitutional government was initiated in April by the Provincial Congress called by the Georgia Trustees in response to a series of mass meetings held throughout the colony. This document provided a framework for the transition from colony to state. Soon after Georgia accepted the Declaration of Independence, its first state constitutional convention was organized.
Completed in February and executed without having been submitted to voters for ratification, this constitution remained in effect for twelve years. It vested most governmental authority in a state legislative body, incorporated the separation of powers doctrine, and included a number of basic rights, such as the free exercise of religion, freedom of the press, and trial by jury.
On January 2,Georgia became the fourth state to ratify the U.
Constitution of the State of Texas (1861)
In November of that year, to assure conformity with the federal document, Georgia revised the Constitution of through a constitutional convention. The shortest of Georgia's constitutions, the Constitution of was modeled after the U.
Just as the U. Constitution responded to weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation, so too did the Georgia Constitution of respond to weaknesses in the Georgia Constitution of Generally, the Constitution of slightly weakened the power of the legislature. It provided for a bicameral legislature, an executive branchand a judicial branch. The legislature, or General Assemblywas elected and had the power to select a governormodeled after the U.The states now faced serious and complicated questions about how to make their rules.
What did it mean to replace royal authority with institutions based on popular rule? How was " popular sovereignty " the idea that the people were the highest authority to be institutionalized in the new state governments?
For that matter, who were "the people"? Every state chose to answer these questions in different ways based on distinctive local experiences, but in most cases colonial traditions were continued, but modified, so that the governor the executive lost significant power, while the assemblies the legislative branch, which represented the people most directly became much more important. We'll focus on the new rules created in three states to suggest the range of answers to the question about how to organize republican governments based upon popular rule.
Pennsylvania created the most radical state constitution of the period. Following the idea of popular rule to its logical conclusion, Pennsylvania created a state government with several distinctive features.
First, the Pennsylvania constitution of abolished property requirements for voting as well as for holding office. If you were an adult man who paid taxes, then you were allowed to vote or even to run for office.
This was a dramatic expansion of who was considered a political person, but other aspects of the new state government were even more radical. Pennsylvania also became a " unicameral " government where the legislature only had one body. Furthermore, the office of the governor was entirely eliminated.
Radicals in Pennsylvania observed that the governor was really just like a small-scale king and that an upper legislative body like the House of Lords in Parliament was supposed to represent wealthy men and aristocrats.
Rather than continue those forms of government, the Pennsylvania constitution decided that "the people" could rule most effectively through a single body with complete legislative power. Many conservative Patriots met Pennsylvania's new design with horror.
When John Adams described the Pennsylvania constitution, he only had bad things to say. To him it was "so democratical that it must produce confusion and every evil work. South Carolina's state constitution of created new rules at the opposite end of the political spectrum from Pennsylvania. In South Carolina, white men had to possess a significant amount of property to vote, and they had to own even more property to be allowed to run for political office.
In fact, these property requirements were so high that 90 percent of all white adults were prevented from running for political office! This dramatic limitation of who could be an elected political leader reflected a central tradition of 18th-century Anglo-American political thought. Only individuals who were financially independent were believed to have the self-control to make responsible and reasonable judgments about public matters.
As a result poor white men, all women, children, and African Americans whether free or slave were considered too dependent on others to exercise reliable political judgment. While most of these traditional exclusions from political participation have been ended in America today, age limitations remain, largely unchallenged. The creation of the Massachusetts state constitution of offered yet another way to answer some of the questions about the role of "the people" in creating a republican government.
When the state legislature presented the voters with a proposed constitution init was rejected because the people thought that this was too important an issue for the government to present to the people. If the government could make its own rules, then it could change them whenever it wanted and easily take away peoples' liberties.
Following through on this logic, Massachusetts held a special convention in where specially elected representatives met to decide on the best framework for the new state government. This idea of a special convention of the people to decide important constitutional issues was part of a new way of thinking about popular rule that would play a central role in the ratification of the national Constitution in Report broken link.
State constitutions establish certain organs of government for the State, vest these organs with their powers, and deny certain other powers. In addition to the constitutions, each State government rests upon legislative enactments, executive decrees, judicial rulings, custom and habit. Often, the constitution of one state differs from that of another in various aspects. However, in their principal elements, state constitutions are all similar to one another.
The general nature of State constitutions is based upon the type of powers that State governments possess and exercise. State constitutions are quite long.Hanbot code
State constitutions resemble each other in general outline. The contents of most of the state constitutions can be summarized as follows:. A State constitution usually opens with a preamble, which is a brief foreword setting forth the presumed reasons for which the constitution was drafted and adopted.Passfab password recovery crack
State constitutions have considerable portions dealing with the suffrage and elections. They specify the various qualifications for the electorate. They set the dates for particular elections and establish the local administrative machinery for the balloting. State constitutions include considerable portions devoted to the establishment and regulation of the various types of local government.
The State constitutions set forth the power of the State government to levy taxes and to incur debt. The largest part of the State constitution is devoted to an enumeration of the general powers of the State government.How to bypass license key
A final portion of the State constitution provides means for amending and revising it. There are three methods usually appearing in State constitutions whereby the constitution may be amended or revised:. Moreover, there is a fourth formal means of constitutional commission that is not specifically authorized by any State constitution but accepted by the courts. Home Information. Find Attorney.
For Attorneys. We Help! No Hassles Guarantee. Search: Search. The general nature of State Constitutions is as follows: 1. The powers of State governments The general nature of State constitutions is based upon the type of powers that State governments possess and exercise. Length of State constitutions State constitutions are quite long.Texas Democrats gained control of Congress in and decided it was time to draft a new constitution for Texas.
The Texas Constitutional Convention of met in Austin with the purpose of replacing the Constitution of it was believed that the new constitution should restrict the state government and hand the power back to the people. Some examples of how the government was restricted were  :. The structure of the current constitution of Texas Constitution of is a Preamble, 17 Articles, and Amendments Since . Skip to main content.
Texas History and Culture. Search for:. The Constitutions of Texas Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss the constitutions of Texas Describe the current constitution of Texas Constitutions of Texas Texas has been governed by multiple constitutions. Some examples of how the government was restricted were  : Legislative sessions moved from annual to biennial sessions Creation of a plural executive Mandated a balanced budget State Judges would be elected by the people The people would vote on the ratification of amendments The structure of the current constitution of Texas Constitution of is a Preamble, 17 Articles, and Amendments Since .
Article 1: Bill of Rights Similar civil liberties and civil rights as in the U. Licenses and Attributions.
CC licensed content, Original.In the United States, each state has its own written constitution. Usually, they are much longer than the United States Constitutionwhich only contains 4, words. State constitutions are usually longer than 8, words because they are more detailed regarding the day-to-day relationships between government and the people. The shortest is the Constitution of Vermontadopted in and currently 8, words long. The longest is Alabama 's sixth and current constitutionratified inaboutwords long.
Both the federal and state constitutions are organic texts : they are the fundamental blueprints for the legal and political organizations of the United States and the states, respectively. The Bill of Rights provides that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.Rtl verification engineer interview questions
Constitution was adopted. Typically state constitutions address a wide array of issues deemed by the states to be of sufficient importance to be included in the constitution rather than in an ordinary statute. Often modeled after the federal Constitution, they outline the structure of the state government and typically establish a bill of rightsan executive branch headed by a governor and often one or more other officialssuch as a lieutenant governor and state attorney generala state legislatureand state courtsincluding a state supreme court a few states have two high courts, one for civil cases, the other for criminal cases.
They also provide general governmental framework for what each branch is supposed to do and how it should go about doing it. Additionally, many other provisions may be included. Many state constitutions, unlike the federal constitution, also begin with an invocation of God.
Some states allow amendments to the constitution by initiative. The territories of the United States are "organized" and, thus, self-governing if the United States Congress has passed an Organic Act. One unorganized territory, American Samoa, has its own constitution. The remaining 13 unorganized territories have no permanent populations and are either under direct control of the U.
Government or operate as military bases. Constitutional law in the CNMI is based upon a series of constitutional documents, the most important of which are the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in political union with the United States of America, which controls the relationship between the CNMI and the United States;  and the local commonwealth constitution, drafted inratified by the people of the CNMI in Marchaccepted by the United States Government in Octoberand effective from 9 January The following is a list of the current constitutions of the states in the United States.
Each entry shows the ordinal number of the current constitution, the official name of the current constitution, the date on which the current constitution took effect, and the estimated length of the current constitution. Also below are a description of organic instruments with respect to additional territory. Note that constitutions of states that were independent countries prior to admission, and constitutions used by rebelling states participating in the American Civil War are not counted.
The District of Columbia has a charter similar to charters of major cities, instead of having a constitution like the states and territories.
The District of Columbia Home Rule Act establishes the Council of the District of Columbiawhich governs the entire district and has certain devolved powers similar to those of major cities. Congress has full authority over the district and may amend the charter and any legislation enacted by the Council. Attempts at statehood for the District of Columbia have included the drafting of two constitutions in  and both referring to the district as the "State of New Columbia ".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Many states have had several constitutions over the course of their history. June 17, January 9, Retrieved September 17, October 24, October 17, State consitutions at Wikipedia's sister projects. State constitution United States. Washington, D. Virgin Islands.When Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby affixed his signature to the 19th Amendment on August 26,women across the United States gained full voting rights.
While the right of women to vote had not been specifically enshrined in the U. In Kentucky allowed widows with school-age children to vote in school elections, and Kansas followed in According to the Wyoming State Historical Society, the territorial legislature had already passed progressive measures guaranteeing women teachers the same pay as men and granting married women property rights apart from their husbands.
The bill passed both houses of the all-male legislature and was signed into law on December 10,by Republican Governor John Campbell. There was no protest. The new law also allowed women to serve on juries and hold public office. While Bright and others believed in ideals of gender equality, the Wyoming State Historical Society says there were other factors as well. In a territory where men outnumbered women by a 6-to-1 ratio, some hoped the publicity from the measure might attract single women to Wyoming to rectify the gender imbalance as well as to help it achieve the population threshold required to apply for statehood.
Politics also played a role as some Democratic legislators hoped the bill would put the Republican governor in a tough spot. If Campbell, whose party championed African-American voting rights, vetoed the measure, he would look hypocritical. If it passed, Democrats thought women voters would reward them for introducing the measure.
Much to the chagrin of those Democrats, however, Republicans gained seats in the territorial legislature and won the vote for the territorial representative to Congress in the two years after Campbell signed the law.
The Western territories of Washington and Montana passed similar measures in the s. Program for the suffrage march in Washington, D.
Colorado approved it inand Idaho did the same three years later. Congress had disenfranchised women along with outlawing polygamy in Utah inbut women regained the right to vote when the territory became a state in House of Representatives in According to the National Constitution Center, by there were 15 states in which women had full voting rights, and only two of them were east of the Mississippi River.The Era of State Constitution Writing [No. 86]
The dozen states that restricted women from casting ballots in any election were primarily in the South and the East. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Map reproduction courtesy of the Norman B.
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